Turks expel the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.
Scottish patriot William Wallace is hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec on his third voyage to North America.
A British attempt to invade Canada by sea fails.
King George III of England refuses the American colonies’ offer of peace and declares them in open rebellion.
After 11 years of war, Spain grants Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy.
Union batteries cease their first bombardment of Fort Sumter, leaving it a mass of rubble but still unconquered by the Northern besiegers.
Booker T. Washington forms the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.
Fanny Farmer, among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health, opens her School of Cookery in Boston.
The Emperor of Japan declares war on Germany.
American film star Rudolph Valentino dies, causing world-wide hysteria and a number of suicides.
Immigrant laborers Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are executed for a robbery they did not commit. Fifty years later, in 1977, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis establishes a memorial in the victims’ honor.
Joseph Stalin and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop sign a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany, freeing Adolf Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland.
German forces begin an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad.
German SS engineers begin placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
Up to 77,000 members of the U.S. Army Organized Reserve Corps are called involuntarily to active duty to fight the Korean War.
Arab League security pact linking seven Arab States in a military, political and economic alliance goes into effect.
First flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.
The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins: People’s Liberation Army bombards island of Quemoy during Chinese Civil War.
Belgium sends troops to Rwanda-Urundi during bloody Tutsi-Hutu conflict.
Lunar Orbiter 1 takes first photograph of Earth from the moon.
Pathet Lao communists occupy Vientiane, Laos.
Bryan Allen, piloting the Gossamer Condor, wins the Kremer prize for the first human-powered aircraft to fly a one-mile, figure-eight course.
Bolshoi Ballet dancer Alexander Godunov defects in New York City.
Iranian army opens offensive against Kurds.
East and West Germany announce they will unite on Oct 3.
Armenia declares independence from USSR.
Osama bin Laden issues message entitled “A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.”
Natascha Kampusch, abducted at the age of 10 in Austria, escapes from her captor, Wolfgang Priklopil, after 8 years of captivity.
A 5.8 earthquake centered at Mineral, Virginia, damages the Washington Monument, forcing the landmark to close for repairs.
Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi is overthrown after National Transitional Council forces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the 2011 Libyan Civil War.
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